rat extermination

Rat Extermination

Deratting (or rat control) is to prevent the appearance of free-living rats near human settlements, or at least to keep them small in order to reduce the risk of epidemics, destruction of food and damage and pollution by animals.

Desinfection Cockroaches

Cockroaches

The Blattaria, commonly known as Cockroaches, Cockroaches or Cockroaches, are a suborder of insects of the order Blattodea, which also includes termites.

The classification of these groups is still subject to different assumptions. One of them would like them to be included with the mantises in the order of Dictyoptera. Others would like to separate them completely, cockroaches being part of the order Blattodea and termites being part of the order Isoptera. However, the latest research into the genetics of these groups suggests that they evolved from a common ancestor and are therefore strongly related.

The Cockroach is also called Cockroach in Canada and Ravet in the West Indies. These insects are considered “harmful” because of the habits of some of their species. In total, less than 1% of known cockroach species interact with humans and can be truly considered undesirable. Nearly 25 to 30 species can be problematic, and of these, half cause occasional problems.

The so-called “pest” species are synanthropic and are found mainly in kitchens, where they feed on human waste.

The roughly 6,000 species1 found throughout the world vary in shape, color and size. Their appearance on Earth dates back almost 355 million years.

desinfection ants

Ants

 Mieren zijn sociale insecten die deel uitmaken van de familie Formicidae (of formicidae in het Frans) en, samen met wespen en bijen, worden ingedeeld in de orde Hymenoptera, onderorde Apocrita. Deze eusociale insecten vormen kolonies, mierenhopen genaamd, die soms uiterst complex zijn en die enkele tientallen tot enkele miljoenen individuen bevatten. Sommige soorten vormen superkolonies van enkele honderden miljoenen individuen. Termieten, soms witte mieren genoemd vanwege hun formele en gedragsmatige gelijkenis, zijn van de orde Dictyoptera (suborder Isoptera), maar zijn niet nauw verwant.

Mierengemeenschappen hebben een arbeidsverdeling (polyethisme naar leeftijd en kaste), communicatie tussen individuen en het vermogen om complexe problemen op te lossen. Deze analogieën met menselijke samenlevingen zijn lange tijd een bron van inspiratie en onderwerp van wetenschappelijk onderzoek geweest.

In 2013 werden meer dan 12.000 soorten geregistreerd, maar er zijn er waarschijnlijk nog duizenden te ontdekken. De participatieve volkstelling, zoals die in 2019-2020 in het kanton Vaud, Zwitserland is gedaan, zou een manier kunnen zijn om nieuwe kennis op te doen. Kosmopolitische familie (de mier heeft alle terrestrische regio’s gekoloniseerd behalve Groenland en Antarctica), het bereikt een hoge dichtheid in tropische en neotropische omgevingen. Hoewel mieren minder dan één procent van de insectensoorten vertegenwoordigen, is hun geschatte populatie van één miljard miljard individuen zodanig dat de massa van myrmecofauna het gewicht van de mensheid overschrijdt en 10 tot 15% van de dierlijke biomassa in veel habitats vertegenwoordigt, deze massa gecombineerd met die termieten die een derde van de dierlijke biomassa van het Amazone-regenwoud vertegenwoordigen.

Hun evolutionaire succes is grotendeels te danken aan hun sociale organisatie, hun genetische plasticiteit geassocieerd met de aanwezigheid van talrijke mobiele elementen in het genoom en hun voedselopportunisme.

desinfection bedbugs

bedbugs

Bed bugs are species of heteropterous insects of the Cimicidae family, found in various regions of the world. Exclusively hematophagous, adults, male and female, bite and suck (for ten to twenty minutes) the blood of their host, but can survive without eating for up to a year and a half or even two years in good conditions. They are sources of severe itching and dermatitis. Their size varies between five and eight millimeters.

At the start of the 21st century, certain species of bedbugs seemed to proliferate again in France, including in hotels, hospitals and retirement homes. They are exclusively nocturnal insects, but when the population increases they can move around even during the day.

Between 2016 and 2020 more than 4.7 million French people were infested by bedbugs, or 7% of the population.

desinfection fleas

Fleas

Fleas form the order of Siphonaptera (Siphonaptera, from the Latin sipho “tube”), formerly called aphaniptera (Aphaniptera). They are holometabolous pterygotic insects, characterized among other things by their mouth parts shaped like a stinging-sucking device. They are ectoparasites: current fleas infest mammals (including humans) and some birds, and live on the blood of their carriers. As they pass easily from one animal to another, they can carry various animal, human or zoonotic diseases. They are also a possible source of allergies.

Nearly 2,500 species have been described to date, divided into 239 genera and 15 to 16 families according to the authors, and 5 superfamilies.

In Europe, domestic and companion animals (dogs, cats and more rarely rats, white mice, ferrets, new pets, etc.) can be carriers of several species of fleas: Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenocephalides canis, Pulex irritans, Archeopsylla erinace, etc. Most of the time, on domestic carnivores, it is the “cat flea” (Ctenocephalides felis, and in France the subspecies Ctenocephalides felis felis) that is involved (more than 90% of cases). This species is actually very ubiquitous and can feed on cats, where it was first found, as on all European mammals (carnivores, rabbits, hares, ruminants or humans). Fleas from rodents, small wild carnivores or insectivores, or birds can also be found in homes and public places.

desinfection moths

moths

The word mite is an ambiguous vernacular name which in French designates several species of small moths (insects of the order Lepidoptera and the former suborder of Heterocera) having in common their harmful character for human activity:

certain species of the Tineidae family (actual Ringworms): “clothing moths”, which feed on fungi, lichens and various fibers, and rarely on living plants;
certain species of the Pyralidae family (moths or false moths): “food moths”, such as the flour moth, which feed on food or various plants.

desinfection food-moths

food-moths

Examples of food moths

Ephestia kuehniella, the flour moth, whose caterpillars mainly attack flour, cereal grains (wheat, corn, rice), semolina, oatmeal, muesli, cookies, pasta and more rarely with dried fruits (grapes, figs, apricots).
Ephestia elutella, the cocoa moth, which attacks cocoa, chocolate, walnuts, hazelnuts, almonds, nougat, pralines, marzipan, rice, pearl barley, bran, pasta, dry cakes and gingerbread, dried fruits, etc.
Ephestia cautella, the dry grape moth, which attacks dried or drying fruits (figs, apricots, plums, grapes, etc.), peanuts, shelled nuts, but also rice, flour, cocoa and chocolate. The reddish or yellowish caterpillar leaves its brown excrement mixed with silk threads.
Plodia interpunctella, the dried fruit moth, which attacks wheat, rice, flour, dry cakes and gingerbread, pasta, dehydrated or dried fruits and vegetables, candied chestnuts, chestnuts, walnuts and hazelnuts, chicory and chocolate.

desinfection mouse

Mouse

“Mouse” is a common vocabulary name that can refer to all kinds of rodent mammals generally having a small stature, a pointed muzzle, round ears, a gray-brown coat and a relatively long tail. In other words, this term does not correspond to a precise level of the scientific classification of species. It is a vernacular name whose meaning is ambiguous in biology, because it is applicable only to a part of the species classified in the order of Rodentia. However, by saying “mouse”, French speakers most often refer to the gray mouse (Mus musculus), a common house species, also raised as a pet or laboratory animal. The mouse quiotes, it emits a cry resembling a small screeching.

By analogy, the term “mouse” is often used to designate other small rodents, mainly Muridae, a family which also includes voles and field mice, and many rats.

In contrast, other than vague similarities in appearance, bats are a very different group of mammals: the order Chiroptera.

desinfection rat

Rat

The word “rat” is an ambiguous vernacular name which can designate, in French, hundreds of different species in the world of omnivorous rodent mammals, whose tail is bare, the teeth sharp and the muzzle pointed. Rats are most often of the Muridae family or, more restrictively, of the genus Rattus, which includes the most common species: Rattus rattus, the black rat, and Rattus norvegicus, the sewer rat, which gave the domestic rat in breeding. However, by analogy, the term also designates some species of rodents that are not part of the Muridae family, such as the palm rat, the chinchilla rat, etc.

Man studies these rodents, uses them for his own benefit, tames them or, on the contrary, considers them as pests and seeks to exterminate them. Rats are thus an integral part of human symbolism, culture and history, and many works refer to them.

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